March 25 2015
Compelling archival, and curatorial practices have been occurring online for over twenty years, and they correlate to the emergence of cyberfeminism, more commonly referred to today as digifeminism. Contemporaneous to the first online archival process undertaken by The Getty Museum’s Art History Information Program (AHIP),[i] this emergence, found its spokesperson in Professor Emerita, Donna Haraway, and her text the Cyborg Manifesto of 1991. Cyborg feminism is the theory behind the coming together of female bodily connectivity with their environments, online and ‘in real life,’ (now more commonly indicated by the acronym IRL, (URL is the accreditation for online environments) and how these two realities coexist as an embodiment of individual, as well as collective processes of “fiction as lived experience.”[ii] Stating, “A cyborg is a cybernetic organism, a hybrid of machine and organism, a creature of social reality as well as a creature of fiction. Social reality is lived social relations, our most important political construction, a world-changing fiction,”[iii] Haraway is suggesting that through interconnectivity, technology and physicality of the consuming person, we are all becoming cyborgs coexisting on many different platforms of identity, social constructs and political spacialities. With that knowledge, my pursuit is to investigate contemporary curatorial practices online, and to question how the lives of women have shifted from being enhanced virtually as lived experience, to living virtually through an embodied engagement with the Internet. Accordingly, curator, cultural theorist and feminist Jennifer Chan states:
A core tenet of contemporary feminism is to question the definitions of masculinity and femininity when the Internet has become a convergent space for work and socialization. For Internet artists, it is both a medium and an environment. For researchers, it is an informal discursive space where accelerated streams of content inspire a need to examine the patterns and politics of our exchanges online.[iv]
This paper is an examination of contemporary feminist practice, and undertakes an overview of current trends in online archival and exhibition practices. Divided in two parts; a) Virtual Archival Practices and b) From Archive to Exhibition, the emphasis for the paper is on work by Californian writer, artist, and cultural practitioner, Kate Durbin. Her work consists of investigating URL-digital portrayals of women, whether through self-identifying social media imagery to commercialized representations, and how these two polarized ideals of the perfected female body is objectified in ‘real’ space. Furthermore, I have become familiar with two projects; Hello Selfie, 2014,[v] a performance exhibited in the online exhibition Body Anxiety, 2015 and a Tumblr project stemming from 2011-2013, Women as Objects, in situ at http://womenasobjects.tumblr.com/. Women as Objects, is an archival/curatorial project consisting of Durbin reposting Tumblr posts made by teenage girls. Tumblr is a URL blog format for a more individualized practice of diary keeping. To begin, I will be grounding trends in virtual methods of archival practice by the use of two platforms, the text by cultural theorist Hal Foster, The Archive Without Museums, from 1996 and The New Aesthetic object-theory, contextualized through archiving practices by cultural technologist James Bridle, stemming from 2011.  Secondly, my examination of URL archival practices will move towards the URL exhibition space, by focusing on Australian academic, Vince Dzieken’s use of the term Virtuality, and the embedding of curatorial practices into online design codes. As previously mentioned, it is here where I will present Durbin’s project Hello Selfie, as the case study for Body Anxiety.
Virtual Archival Practices:
Writing in 1996, Hal Foster engaged with the idea of the archive, cultural multiplicity in contemporary media, and the movement of information out of the physicality of the museum and into virtually spatialized environments. In which he describes the processes of changing the formats of visual culture “into a system of image-text – a database of digital terms.”[vi] Reviewing the history of image making, production, and distribution, Foster questions the role of the autonomous art object and its relation to epistemological inquiries as it now pertains to computerized data. Previously, art was constituted by its context, and now that it has moved into the virtual realm, it has come up against the decontextualization of the methods of inquiry, academia and discourse. Holding onto decade, and century old information about the construction of social attributions, art begins to attain new parallel identities signifying interrelated optical effects fundamental to capitalist spectacle.[vii] Through this mechanization of recreating the image through the data of the machine, it also “disembodies the viewer from visual culture.”[viii] Critical of this avant-garde(ien) process of disembodying the viewer from the social codes that constitute the art object, Foster states, “the avant-gardist transgression of categories becomes, at the level of "consumption," a hip manipulation of signs and, on the level of "production," a corporate merger not only of mediums but of entertainment industries.”[ix] Meaning, that the autonomy of art has become more vague through its juxtaposition to highly saturated digital media over the internet. Foster is very critical of this process, and yet if we move into the twenty-first century, the vague realities between URL and IRL experiences are mutually dependent; we are dis/embodied with the machine. Our use of virtual images also follows suit; art is also embedded within both social spaces.
Commencing in 2011, James Bridle contextualizes this attestation of binding visual culture within IRL and URL spaces through a research project coined as The New Aesthetic,[x](Fig. 1) and of which is becoming a new theoretical linkage. Science fiction writer and Net theorist, Bruce Sterling describes, “The “New Aesthetic” is a native product of modern network culture. It’s from London, but it was born digital, on the Internet. The New Aesthetic is a “theory object” and a “shareable concept.”[xi] Accordingly, Sterling moves on to describe it as diffused and a “collectively-intelligent theory-object.”[xii] The visuality of The New Aesthetic,[xiii] consists of numerous juxtapositions of seemingly random imagery, text and reposted blog posts into one authored and particular online blog, Bridle’s. Another description of this process can be related to writer, and cultural theorist, David Balzar’s term Curationism; meaning a utopic, consumerist, and value-centered project undertaken by virtually everyone attempting to influence culture in the day-to-day consumption of ideas, stuff and objects; virtual and physical objects in individual and collective online practices and engagements with life.[xiv] However, despite the correlations to popular consumerist engagement with the image, The New Aesthetic takes this one-step further and creates an archive out of the randomness of content, in doing so, structuring this content as something coherent.
As previously mentioned, Women as Objects, http://womenasobjects.tumblr.com/, 2011-2013 by Kate Durbin is a feminist archive (Fig. 2). Consistently, over the course of two years, Durbin created this URL based project by reposting the diaristic blog posts of teenage women/girls. The challenge to Women as Objects, is in knowing how to articulate it for future theoretical discourse, and to see where it fits within the larger cultural scope of contemporary visual studies. My understanding of the project is that it is a feminist manifestation of The New Aesthetic; as a feminist archive of visual culture and how this culture interrelates with the lives of young women. Durbin herself describes it as an intervention into the teen girl Tumblr aesthetic, meaning, “the art “object” extends to the bodies of girls both on and offline; the fetish is not contained in a static image. Even the images themselves are constantly moving and perpetuating themselves on Tumblr, breathing and existing in time and space as a living body.[xv] Therefore, Women as Objects, is Feminist in the way it challenges stereotypical constructs of the American Teen girl in popular culture by recontextualizing their online interactions into a conceptual interaction. Durbin describes, “American pop culture idealizes the adolescent experience, recreating it through nostalgia, hypersexualized female bodies and fleeting, sugary feelings,”[xvi] in practice teen girls revert this sense of hypersexualized nostaligia by posting affected diaristic content, and the reversion is in the act of revealing their innermost fears, joys and confusion through visual images primarily found over the internet. Theirs is an act of appropriation/reappropriation and Durbin contextualizes this practice through the creation of an archive full of random repostings from strangers; a randomness that develops into a coherent social interrogation into the nature of the lives of teen girls in real life and online. Teenage girls are creating visually fictionalized lived experiences through curated imagery, and Durbin examines their fictions as pattern of a coming of age online,[xvii] through an interventionist archival approach. What she reveals are the foundations for social constructions of lived realities. Understood through the URL environments, these fictions transcribe onto the bodily experiences of young women in real life.
From Archive to Exhibition:
As with online archival processes, curating objects in physical exhibition spaces have found their footing online through specialized programs initiated through large institutions, and their counterparts in museums. The majority of museums, art galleries and specialty exhibition spaces have an online presence that also includes archival information of their collections, exhibitions and secondary didactic information for the inspired researcher. My experience with online exhibition practices, before the introduction to Body Anxiety, was just this – a digital tour of iconic museum spaces, and/or through research for numerous scholarly essay-writing projects. In addition, in 2013, I created a very rudimentary online exhibition, which works more clearly as an archive of the process in creating the exhibition. Hence, the majority of what constitutes online exhibition spaces is a more curated archival process than what is traditionally considered an exhibit.
In contrast, Body Anxiety is an exhibition space, through its aesthetic, didactic information and curatorial design, there is no disputing its role as a cultural forum for the dissemination of the art object. However, as differentiated from other online experiments in curatorial practice, its displayed art objects stem primarily from the digital realm, they are not digitized formats of already existing art objects. Body Anxiety, is purely digital, in its inception, its form, function and execution. Before I discuss the exhibition further, there needs to be a grounding of digital exhibition practices to structure and theorize the use of digital space for curatorial display.
Dr Vince Dziekan, the Associate Dean of Research in the Faculty of Art & Design at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, curates exhibition spaces that move in and out of both URL and IRL environments, and yet stay grounded in the traditional spaces of galleries and museums.[xviii] In his text, Virtuality and The Art of Exhibition, Dzieken postulates on the role of digital design and display through the interconnectedness of online and real exhibition spaces. Digital art objects, according to Dzeiken, are what is known as objectiles. Referencing Bernard Cache, he defines the objectile as “a technological object no longer defined by its essential form. Instead, an objectile is described through its functions and is determined by parameters.”[xix] An objectile, is an artistic/design work which is created through digital platforms, and remains within these parameters through its dissemination into the larger art market/world. Subsequently, art now falls between two distinguishing characteristics; that which is made by an artist and falls within art historical frameworks, and secondly, “art is an activity consisting in producing relationships with the world with the help of signs, forms, actions and objects.”[xx] Some examples of objectiles are imagery created through GIF, digitally processed paintings, drawings and illustrations, and video projects that live online. Accordingly, Dzieken refers to the practice of displaying objectiles in relationship to one another, as Virtuality. Additionally, Virtuality is also a method of artistic discourse within institutions, between the artworld and the publics engaging with the work, he states,
Virtuality describes the character of aesthetic experience influenced by contemporary technologized conditions. This cultural concept is represented by a paradigm shift away from consolidated objects to fluid relationships between objectiles. Enabled to a significant degree by digitisation, the experience of virtuality is tied to viewing conditions in physical space. The exhibition plays an influential role in mediating the interaction between cultural production and viewer experience.[xxi]
Respectively, Dzieken published his findings on the idea of Virtuality; being in and out of physical space, and relying on this physicality of space to articulate the new roles of exhibitions, in 2012, 3 years earlier to the launch of Body Anxiety. Ending his chapter with the call for visual culture practitioners to look beyond the ‘event structure’ that is the infrastructure of the museum,[xxii] and to be adventurous in recontextualizing the space for exhibition. Exhibition meaning the exhibitionary complex of objectiles, space, (virtual and physical) and narratives engaging with fictions of lived experiences.[xxiii]
The urgency and immediacy of the internet has quickly opened up this frame of experimenting with exhibition practices, to a virtuality where the architectural necessity of an exhibition space has been dissolved. Other aspects of virtuality in leaving the architectural spaces of the museum are threefold; the difficulty emerging artists face when showing their work within an institution, the highly structured timeframes of the exhibition calendar, and the museum not taking into account how to adapt their role in displaying art quickly enough to engage with current practice. Jennifer Chan describes,
Artists can no longer wait to be discovered. New media artists like myself are writing and curating to create cultures of work and exhibitions away from the ad agency and the museum. This is not because we object to the museumiﬁcation of net art (to help often unpaid artists to make money from their labour is a good thing). But the museum, nor the auction house, has yet to completely adapt to the informalities and ethics of new media culture.[xxiv]
New media artists engage with platforms of dissemination on a level of nowness; “the quality or state of existing or occurring in or belonging to the present time,”[xxv] However, where the immediacy in access to online environments, even for the net artist, ends is within gendered structures from the physical world following internet users online. Concepts follow the user online and create new ideas embedded within the traditional dominance of male structured social spaces. To expose the gendered space of the internet, women expose themselves as being who they actually are instead of who they could fictionalize themselves to be over the forum of anonymity that is the web. As Chan states, “Sex and gender therefore exists in a continuum of conformity and resistance to traditional ideas of the masculine and the feminine,” resulting in female, and female identified “Net artists and users to deliberate gender in immanent ways by dint of appearing online as themselves. The selfie, the status update, the post – these are scenes of exposure and visibility that constitute an always-becoming self on the Internet.”[xxvi] Revealing the self, in order to reveal the intricate gendered identities of users and the systems of power, (discrimination, oppression etc…) following users online from physical, political, and social realities.
Over the course of the Twentieth Century, many women engaging in artistic practice and discourse had the unfortunate role of constantly needing to reassert themselves as being relevant to the artworld, and its museums. Firstly, their work tends to be necessarily reactionary, to create a revolutionary act to reveal misogynist interpretations of women in society, and secondly, through their individual reactionary expression, to be in the position of having to prove themselves as being autonomous and strong in their own methods of representation. Consequently, the URL status of women owning their representation has been at the forefront of online activity since the inception of the internet. The typical reassertion of being relevant in artistic circles and social situations does not seem as constraining as it has been in physical manifestations of space. Nevertheless, women consistently reappropriate real life situations to online environments and vice versa, resulting in shocking depictions of a continued oppression of their self-images and representation.
On January 24, 2015, curators Leah Schrager and Jennifer Chan launched Body Anxiety, an online exhibit that focuses on emerging female artists and how they approach the question of identity through works primarily created for the internet. Created as a rebuttal for an exhibition by conceptual web-based artist Ryder Ripps, Ho (Fig. 3) and his critique of the role of images of women online. Ripps created large-scale paintings using the unfocused airbrushing trope by reappropriating iphone images taken from model, Adrianna Ho’s Instagram account. Then proceeding to manipulate the images as stretched, and unnatural, with an overt focus on the sexualized body of the figure. Feminist artists and curators were angry at his perverse and sexualized portrayal of one woman’s self-imagery, that the exhibition created an uproar in contemporary art circles of New York, even before it opened. Critic Taylor Dafoe argues, “Ostensibly, Ho engages with the ways in which we portray women, tapping into the long history of the manipulation of images in the name of sex and advertisement.”[xxvii] His critique tries to diffuse Ripp’s male chauvinistic act into one that interrogates representational practices of women. However, the anger over the art is justified, the act itself is misogynist, the action of the male-artists hand reaching into the online environment and taking one woman’s self-representation as his own by placing it in a gallery as a deformed and sexualized figure. The urgency for women net artists was to reclaim their own representational art and highlight their own agency as solidarity for Adrianna Ho.
The curatorial statement for Body Anxiety points to the longstanding feminist act of reclaiming voice from the perceived commodified and/or sexualized images of women throughout art historical practices.[xxviii] Within the virtual space of the exhibition, I was introduced to the Durbin’s documentation of a performance, Hello Selfie, (Fig.4)
Hello Selfie, is a performance piece digitally captured through video, and transmitted on the internet. Durbin invited a wide array of female models to join her in dramatically applying pastel makeup and covering their bodies in Hello Kitty stickers, while wearing only white underwear. The women, then walked out to the walk of fame on Hollywood Boulevard, and proceeded to take selfies for one hour all while remaining completely silent and uploading the images on different social media sites, in real time. The video shows how fascinated the audience of unsuspecting tourists were at the display, and they too began to take their own selfies with the women. When asked her intention in the work, Durbin replied,
I wanted to take what girls do online in the protection of their bedrooms and put it in a public IRL place where people would be forced to confront their reactions—both tender and violent—to female narcissism and the selfie phenomenon. I'm interested in the ways in which violence toward women's images online ties into violence against their bodies in real life. And the ways in which women seem to bear the brunt of narcissism accusations, even though everyone's taking selfies.[i]
Previously, I mentioned Jennifer Chan’s description of the necessity for female/female identified artists to self-represent online. This occurs through numerous formats, but particularly within the selfie, an immediate self-portrait taken through the lens of the digital camera-phone. Numerous cultural critics refer to the contemporary fascination with digital self portraiture as a reflection of the narcissism of young people today. In contrast, contemporary feminist scholars consider the act of taking the selfie necessary, and it acts as a signifier of reclaiming identity from the mass anonymity of the virtual space of the internet. PhD Candidate, Lisa Ehlin considers the selfie to be subversive, and a tool of agency that allows for self-love, self-expression and self-determination to be fostered in young women. Discussing the selfie as feminist strategy, Ehlin suggests, “the selfie opens up for an ability to mimic and play with social roles, pointing towards potential subversion through awareness and agency, rather than self-objectification.”[ii]
The selfie can exist as a form of self-representation that denies the objectification of women. Through the format of instant self-portraiture, young women can constantly construct and deconstruct identity, removing the pigeonholed effect of popular culture and transforming self-representations into specific personal ideals and nuanced expectations of self/identity. Furthermore, Ehlin suggests the selfie is a performance of labour as conflict towards the commodity culture that is our social reality:
the selfie puts the question of the hyper-connected individual (the idea of everything and everyone simply always online) in relation to suggested self-empowerment, self-marketing or self-inflation. More specifically, the selfie arguably also highlights a gendered role within a capitalist society, being a product of labour, not only on the body and on the production of the body, but also how these bodies are treated as commodities.[iii]
The beauty of the online exhibition space, is found in the urgency and speed the curators confronted the violence in Ripps’ art practice. The majority of works in Body Anxiety, are digital self-representations chosen to confront the violence Ryder Ripps engaged in when he took Adrianna Ho’s self-images off the internet and transformed them into distorted sexualized art objects. By creating a commodity out of Ho’s body image, he constructed an environment that reinstated the oppression women continue to face in real life. Chan and Schrager launched the exhibition, before the exhibition by Ripps opened to the public, encouraging a large group of women to come together as an act of solidarity towards Ho the person and not the exhibition. In creating this new political forum for feminist theory to emerge, Chan and Shrager have successfully answered Dzieken’s call to recontextualize public space for exhibition and curatorial design. Curators no longer require the museum or gallery to showcase their work, and to make a footprint in political realities. Surely, to Hal Foster’s dismay, online archival and exhibition practices no longer disembody the viewer from the social codes that constitute the art object, they instead intimately embed the viewer’s experience into the objectile created for the virtual space. The question now is where will curators find funding to create URL exhibitions?
[i] Moreland, Quinn. "The Selfie Aesthetic: An Interview With Kate Durbin." The Hairpin. 18 Dec. 2014. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://thehairpin.com/2014/12/kate-durbin-interview-in-progress>.
[ii] Ehlin, Lisa. (2015), ‘The subversive selfie: Redefining the mediated subject’,
Clothing Cultures 2: 1, pp. 73–89, doi: 10.1386/cc.2.1.73_1 p.1 draft emailed to author. Mar. 2015
[iii] Ibid p.2
Balzer, David. Curationism: How Curating Took Over the Art World and Everything Else. Toronto: Coach House, 2014. Print.
Bridle, James. "The New Aesthetic." The New Aesthetic —. James Bridle, 1 May 2011. Web. 21 Mar. 2015. <http://new-aesthetic.tumblr.com/about>.
Chan, Jennifer. "Notes on Post Internet Art." You Are Here: Art After the Internet. Ed. Omar Kholeif. Manchester: Cornerhouse, 2014. Print. Accessed on Web. 22 Mar. 2015 https://www.academia.edu/7508373/Notes_on_Post-Internet?
"On the Web, Gendered Space Is Gendered." .dpi Feminist Journal of Art and Digital Culture. 1 Jan. 2014. Web. 21 Mar. 2015. <http://dpi.studioxx.org/en/no/28-gendered-cultures-internet/web-gendered-space-gendered>.
Dafoe, Taylor. "RYDER RIPPS Ho." The Brooklyn Rail. 5 Mar. 2015. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://www.brooklynrail.org/2015/03/artseen/ryder-ripps-ho>.
Durbin, Kate. "Women as Objects." Dpi Feminist Journal of Art and Digital Culture. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://dpi.studioxx.org/en/no/28-gendered-cultures-internet/women-objects>.
Dziekan, Vince. "Virtuality and The Art of Exhibition." VIRTUALITY AND THE ART OF EXHIBITION : CURATORIAL DESIGN FOR THE MULTIMEDIAL MUSEUM. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago, 2011. Print.
Eler, Alicia, and Kate Durbin. "The Teen-Girl Tumblr Aesthetic*." Hyperallergic RSS. 1 Mar. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <http://hyperallergic.com/66038/the-teen-girl-tumblr-aesthetic/>.
Foster, Hal. "The Archive Without Museums." October 77 (1996): 96-119. Jstor. Web. 16 Mar. 2015. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/778962>.
“Getty Research Institute Digital Art History Activities: An Overview." Http://www.getty.edu/. 3 Nov. 2011. Web. 21 Mar. 2015. <http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabularies/MBaca_GRIDigitalArtHistoryPresentation2011-11-03.pdf>.
Haraway, Donna Jeanne. "A CYBORG MANIFESTO SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND SOCIALIST-FEMINISM IN THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY." Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. New York: Routledge, 1991. 149-181. Print.
Sterling, Bruce. "An Essay on the New Aesthetic | WIRED." Wired.com. Conde Nast Digital, 2 Apr. 2012. Web. 16 Mar. 2015. <http://www.wired.com/2012/04/an-essay-on-the-new-aesthetic/>.
 The first being The Getty Center Research Project, formally the Getty Art History Information Program (AHIP), as per Hal Foster, in his paper The Archive Without Museums, 1996.
 Throughout my paper, I will be using both acronyms and the phrases, in real life and online as they seem fit to the context. To highlight the confusing attributes of trying to disassociate the URL from the IRL.
 “It is a series of artefacts of the heterogeneous network, which recognises differences, the gaps in our distant but overlapping realities.” James Bridle Online - see description by Bruce Sterling in the proceeding paragraphs, & endnote
 Yes, the research for online activities has a lot of similarities with how I understand the term ‘down the Rabbit Hole’ from the classic novel/film Alice in Wonderland. Especially when you engage with virtual-only environments. As was my experience when researching James Bridle’s The New Aesthetic – quotes and references linked one to another through circular discussion by a handful of thinkers. To discuss this structure of new knowledge further, would require another intensive research project. However, please be aware that I am attempting to construct a coherent analysis from a dispersed and very dynamic theoretical practice, without much engagement with IRL environments, other than a few conferences. The majority of writings are found on numerous online blogs by academics and thinkers.
 As mentioned earlier, I describe the process of analyzing, critiquing and theorizing The New Aesthetic as a linkage. Everywhere it is discussed, there are numerous URL links to other analyses making up a broader theoretical framework about what it consists of. However, there is not one place, that concisely sums it up – which is the beauty of the concept. It is everywhere, and nowhere at once, living online but also within inquisitive frameworks of information dissemination outside of traditional academic structures.
 In addition, he is affiliated with the Foundation for Art & Creative Technology (FACT) in Liverpool, UK as a FACT Associate and most recently was appointed Digital Media Curator of The Leonardo Electronic Almanac (LEA). (taken from Dzieken’s online biography)
 Objectiles were first introduced in the 1990s, and were a combination of two digital platforms in creating architecturally designed environments. My belief is that Dzieken is transcribing the term onto all digital objects.
 Canadian Academic and Researcher based in Architectural design and virtual environments.
 Confusingly, Body Anxiety is a URL sited exhibition created in rebuttal of an IRL exhibition created by URL practitioner and artist Ryder Ripps.
[i] "Getty Research Institute Digital Art History Activities: An Overview." Http://www.getty.edu/. 3 Nov. 2011. Web. 21 Mar. 2015. <http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabularies/MBaca_GRIDigitalArtHistoryPresentation2011-11-03.pdf>.
[ii] Haraway, Donna Jeanne. " A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and SocialistFeminism
in the Late Twentieth Century." Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. New York: Routledge, 1991. Print. P.149
[iv] Chan, Jennifer. "On the Web, Gendered Space Is Gendered." .dpi Feminist Journal of Art and Digital Culture. 1 Jan. 2014. Web. 21 Mar. 2015. <http://dpi.studioxx.org/en/no/28-gendered-cultures-internet/web-gendered-space-gendered>.
[v] Schrager, Leah, and Jennifer Chan. "Kate Durbin (info)." BODY ANXIETY. 24 Jan. 2015. Web. 11 Feb. 2015. <http://bodyanxiety.com/gallery/kate-durbin/>.
[vi] Foster, Hal. "The Archive Without Museums." October 77 (1996): 96-119. Jstor. Web. 16 Mar. 2015. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/778962>. P.96
[vii] Ibid p.107
[x] Bridle, James. "The New Aesthetic." The New Aesthetic —. James Bridle, 1 May 2011. Web. 21 Mar. 2015. <http://new-aesthetic.tumblr.com/about>.
[xi] Sterling, Bruce. "An Essay on the New Aesthetic | WIRED." Wired.com. Conde Nast Digital, 2 Apr. 2012. Web. 16 Mar. 2015. <http://www.wired.com/2012/04/an-essay-on-the-new-aesthetic/>.
[xiv] Balzer, David. Curationism: How Curating Took Over the Art World and Everything Else. Toronto: Coach House, 2014. Print.
[xv] Eler, Alicia, and Kate Durbin. "The Teen-Girl Tumblr Aesthetic*." Hyperallergic RSS. 1 Mar. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <http://hyperallergic.com/66038/the-teen-girl-tumblr-aesthetic/>.
[xvii] Durbin, Kate. "Women as Objects." Dpi Feminist Journal of Art and Digital Culture. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://dpi.studioxx.org/en/no/28-gendered-cultures-internet/women-objects>.
[xviii] "Vince Dziekan." Leonardo Electronic Almanac. 1 Jan. 2015. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://www.leoalmanac.org/staff/vince-dziekan/>.
[xix] Dziekan, Vince. "Virtuality and The Art of Exhibition." VIRTUALITY AND THE ART OF EXHIBITION : CURATORIAL DESIGN FOR THE MULTIMEDIAL MUSEUM. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago, 2011. Print. p. 21
[xxii] Ibid p.25
[xxiii] Ibid p. 31
[xxiv] Chan, Jennifer. "Notes on Post Internet Art." You Are Here: Art After the Internet. Ed. Omar Kholeif. Manchester: Cornerhouse, 2014. Print. Accessed on Web. 22 Mar. 2015 <https://www.academia.edu/7508373/Notes_on_Post-Internet?>
[xxv] Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/nowness>.
[xxvi] Chan, "On the Web, Gendered Space Is Gendered."
[xxvii] Dafoe, Taylor. "RYDER RIPPS Ho." The Brooklyn Rail. 5 Mar. 2015. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://www.brooklynrail.org/2015/03/artseen/ryder-ripps-ho>.
[xxviii] Chan, Jennifer and Leah Shrager, Body Anxiety. 2015 Online http://bodyanxiety.com/about/